04 学問の意義(「ノイラートの船」人文社会科学バージョン)(20190701)

先日、キュウリとトマトを植えました。楽しみです。

#前回の復習

前回のupは曖昧だったので、整理しておきたい。学問の有用性は、ある目的を実現することに役立つという第一の有用性と、その目的を理解し正当化を行うという第二の有用性に分けられることを前々回指摘した。これを受けて、前回は第二の有用性について説明しようとしていた。しかし、その過程で、自然科学ではこの二つの有用性を簡単に区別できるが、人文社会科学ではこの二つの区別が曖昧になることに気づいた。その理由をとりあえず2点あげることができる。

第一に、自然科学の研究対象は、自然科学研究とは独立に存在しているのに対して、人文社会科学の研究対象(社会、文化など)は、人文社会科学とは独立に存在していない。人文科学研究がなければ、現在の社会、文化などは成立していないということである。たとえば、民主主義は、民主主義についての思想から独立には成立し得ない。たとえば、貨幣制度は、狭い意味の経済学が学問領域として成立する以前から成立しているが、貨幣制度は、交換的正義の思想から独立には成立しない。交換的正義に関する研究は、経済学の発生以前から、哲学や伝統的な宗教の中にもあった。

第二に、自然は、目的や価値なしに成立している(これは近代科学的な自然理解であるが、いまはこれを採用しておく)が、社会や文化は、目的や価値判断を不可欠な要素として成立しているということである。人文社会科学は、社会や文化を構成する目的や価値判断もその研究対象とする。たとえば、ある社会学研究が持続可能な社会の実現のために有用であるとしよう。このとき、その目標(持続可能な社会)が、社会の目標でもあるとき、この社会の目標は、社会学の研究対象となる。

(この第一の理由と第二の理由は、密接に関連していて、その区別は曖昧であるかもしれない。)

#「ノイラートの船」の人文社会学バージョン

社会が、学問によって構成されているとすると、学問は社会の一部である。したがって、社会の目標について検討し、その正当化を行おうとするとき、私たちは社会の外に出て、それらを行うことはできない。

ここで、科学哲学で議論される「ノイラートの船」が思い出される。ノイラートは、プロトコル言明による科学の基礎付けを批判して次のように言った。「決定的に確立された、純粋なプロトコル言明を科学の出発点とすることはできない。ターブラ・ラサは存在しない。公海上で船を造り直さなければならない船員と同じように、それをドックのなかで解体したり、最良の材料を用いて新たに建造したりすることは決してできないのである。」(ノイラート「プロトコル言明」竹尾治一郎訳(『現代哲学基本論文集 I 』(坂本百大編、勁草書房)p. 169)観察報告のような言明も、他の言明に依存しており理論負荷的である。それゆえに、「ターブラ・ラサ(白紙)」の状態から出発することはできない。

これは、科学の基礎づけないし正当化を巡る議論であるが、これと同じことが、人文社会科学についても言えるだろう。社会の目標について検討し、それを批判したり、正当化したりしようとしても、私たちは、社会という船の外に出て、船をチェックしたり修理したりすることはできない。

 では、学問にとって第二の有効性は可能なのだろうか? あるいは、どうしたら可能なのか?

投稿者: irieyukio

問答の哲学研究、ドイツ観念論研究、を専門にしています。 2019年3月に大阪大学を定年退職し、現在は名誉教授です。 香川県丸亀市生まれ、奈良市在住。

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