05 哲学の意義(20190713)

先日、植木屋さんのおかげで大変きれいになりました。

05 哲学の意義(20190713

残念ながら「ノイラートの船」の議論が有効で有る限り、私たちたちは、自然科学も人文社会科学も基礎づけることはできないし、その第一の有効性も第二の有効性も基礎づけることはできない。

今言えそうなことは次の二つである。

一つは、学問の基礎付けにかんする懐疑論や懐疑論批判の議論は、哲学の仕事であるということである。学問の意義に関するこうした原理的な議論は、哲学の仕事であり、それに意義があるとすれば、それは哲学研究の意義の一つである。

 二つ目は、(第二の有効性についての議論に限らず)原理的な基礎付けができず、かと言って、全面的な懐疑に身を委ねることもできないとしたら、とりあえず試みるべきことは、個別的な提案の正当化であろう。

「書庫(カテゴリー)」の説明文で次のように述べた。

「哲学とは、普通よりもより深くより広く問うことだとすると、普通よりもより深くより広く問うことの意義はなにだろうか?たとえば、哲学研究では、「世界には何か存在するのか?」「知識とはなにか?」「価値とはなにか?」などを問うが、これらの問いを問うことの意義は何だろうか。」

これらの問いを問うことは、どんな目的のためなのだろうか。カントならば、「人間とは何か」を知ることが哲学の目的だと言うかもしれない。そして、「人間とは何か」を問う目的は、「人間は何のために存在するのか」を知ることかもしれない。

私の現時点の暫定的な提案:

<哲学の(あるいは哲学を含めた人文社会科学の)意義は、「人間とは何か」と「人間は何のために存在するのか」という問いを問うこと、およびその答えを得ることにある>

これらの問いの答えを得ることに意義があるだろう。そして仮にこれらの問いの答えが見つかっていないとしても、その答えが見つかる可能性があるかぎり、これらの問いを問うことにも意義があるだろう。

この提案の正当化

私個人としては、「人間とは何か」や「人間は何のために存在するのか」を知ることに劣らず、「世界には何か存在するのか?」「知識とはなにか?」「価値とはなにか?」を問うことそのものにも意義があると考える。しかし、人々の税金を使用して哲学研究することの意義を説得しようとするならば、たとえば「「知識とは何か?」を問うことになぜ税金を使用するのか?」と問われたとき、うまく答えることができない。しかし、「人間は何のために存在するのか?」を問うことであれば例えば、次のように説明できるだろう。

<あなたは何のために税金を払うのでしょうか?それは、あなたの住む国家や地方公共団体が、あなたの生活を守り、幸せに生活することや、よく生きることに役立つようにするためでしょう。その目的を実現するためには、「人間は何のために存在するのか」に答える必要があります。>

科学技術研究によって生活が便利になったり経済発展したりするならば、それに税金を使うことを国民は支持するだろう。人文社会学研究によって、社会がより民主的、自由、平等、になるならば、それに税金を使うことを国民は支持するだろう。これと同様に、

哲学によって、「人間とは何か」や「人間が存在する意味は何か」(この問いは、「人生の意味は何か」「人類の存在の意味は何か」などの問いに書き換えることもできる)に答えられるならば、それに税金を使うことを国民は支持するだろう。

投稿者:

irieyukio

問答の哲学研究、ドイツ観念論研究、を専門にしています。 2019年3月に大阪大学を定年退職し、現在は名誉教授です。 香川県丸亀市生まれ、奈良市在住。

「05 哲学の意義(20190713)」への661件のフィードバック

  1. 数年前にお世話になりました。宮国と申します。
    現在はヒュームに重点を置いて経験論の研究をしています。

    私の見解としては、人生の意味とか生きる意味について議論する前に、「意味」とは何かをまず明確にする必要があると思っています。哲学者の間でも意味に関しての誤解があり、それが「生きる意味」の問いの解決を阻害しているのでは、と感じています。
    以下の記事で自分の考えをまとめてみました。

    「生きる意味」の問いにまつわる問題点
    https://keikenron.blogspot.com/2019/07/blog-post_21.html

    ご興味があればですが・・・

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