アダムソンより

イエナ大学で見つけたトルストイの記念プレートです。
1861年に、単に旅行で訪れたのか、講演でもしたのでしょうか。

乳児のコミュニケーションの発達について、ローレン・B・アダムソン著『乳児のコミュニケーション発達』(大藪秦・田中みどり訳、川島書店)では、次のようにまとめられています。

■初期コミュニケーションの発達指標(同書、p. 21)
開眼 0ヶ月
相手の目を見る     2ヶ月
社会的微笑       2ヶ月
クーイング       2ヶ月
声をたてて笑う     4ヶ月
かなきり声、震舌音、うなり声、叫び声、 4ヶ月
規準的な南語(「バババ」など)     7ヶ月
1語の理解       9ヶ月
10語の理解      10.5ヶ月
複雑な喃語       11ヶ月
指さし、        12ヶ月
50語の理解      13ヶ月
初語          13ヶ月(9~16ヶ月)
10語の発語      15ヶ月(13~19ヶ月)
50語の発話      20ヶ月(14~24ヶ月)
二語文         21ヶ月(18~24ヶ月)

■初期コミュニケーション発達の4段階 (同書、p. 41~)
第一期:注意深さの共有(shared attentiveness)の時期
(誕生時(おそらくそれ以前に)~満期産児で2ヶ月頃)

第二期:対人的関わり(interpersonal engagement)の時期
(生後2ヶ月頃~生後5~6ヶ月頃)
「乳児と養育者の注意が、彼ら自身相互に、また両者を結ぶコミュニケーション・チャンネルに、そして両者間に流れる親密なメッセージにも焦点化できる」「コミュニケーションの主たるトピックは、乳児とそのパートナーによる注意と情動の表現の共有という対人的なものである。この時期は社会的微笑と視線の接触(eye-to-eye contact)が特徴的である。」p. 42
この時期は、乳児が注意を周囲の対象物に移し始めることによって終わる。

第三期:対象物への共同関与(joint object involvement)の時期
(生後6ヶ月頃~2年目の中頃まで、しかし終結時期ははっきりしない。)
「乳児は対象物について他者とコミュニケーションし始める。」「参加者は対象物への注意を共有でき(指示と呼ばれる機能)、対象物を扱うときには互いに援助を求めることができる(要請と呼ばれる機能)。さらに、乳児とそのパートナーが対象物についてコミュニケーションするときには、コミュニケーションに常に付随している文化的背景が対象物の扱い方に明確に現われる。」p. 43
この時期は、共有される対象がコミュニケーション場面に直結するものから次第に距離をとり始めることによって、終結する。

第四期:象徴的なコミュニケーションの出現(emergency of symbolic communication)の時期
(一般的には生後13ヶ月頃~ )
「発達のこの時期に、よちよち歩きの幼児とその親とのコミュニケーションは、文化的なレパートリーに基づく交流方法が繰り返され拡張されるにつれて、慣例化し儀式化されるようになる。とくに顕著なことは、メッセージを伝達することばやその他の社会的に共有される手段が焦点になることである。こうした最初のことばは、しばしば人が行なっている活動と重なり、文字どおり手元にある対象物への言及であることが多い。」pp. 43-44

この四つの時期を詳しく見れば、共同注意が個人の注意に先立ち、指示が共同指示先立つことがいえるだろうと思います。これは、アダムソンが引用していたヴィゴツキーの次の言葉と同じことです。
「子供の文化的発達に見られる機能はすべて2回出現する。最初は社会的レヴェルで、その次に個人的レヴェルで。最初は人と人との〈間で〉(精神間)、その次に子どもの〈内部で〉(精神内)。1978、p.57」(同書p.38からの孫引き)
しかし、私には、このヴィゴツキーの言葉に加えて言いたいことがあるのです。ある発話行為が、個人的レヴェルで行なえるようになったときに、社会的レベルから独立して、それなしに可能になっているのではなく、それを可能にしている機能が社会的レベルで働いているのです。その社会的なレヴェルの基底的な機能は、2回出現するのではなくて、1回しか出現しないのです。

これは、いまのところ予想です。これを証明したいと思います。ぼち。ぼち。

投稿者:

irieyukio

問答の哲学研究、ドイツ観念論研究、を専門にしています。 2019年3月に大阪大学を定年退職し、現在は名誉教授です。 香川県丸亀市生まれ、奈良市在住。

「アダムソンより」への35件のフィードバック

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    PASS:
    管理人です。
    すみません、この発言は、別の書庫「共同注意と指示」に乗せるべきものでした。お詫びします。

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