問答と三角測量

 

淋しいベンチですが、寂しい暖かさがあります。
 
問答と三角測量

 
前回見たように、Davidsonは、次の三種類の知識は、互いに他を必要とし、そのうちのどれも他の二つなくしては成立しないと考える。
 
  ①自分の心の内容に関する知識
  ②世界内の対象についての知識
  ③他人の心の内容に関する知識
 
ところで、前に見たように、問いは、次の二つの矛盾から生じる。
   (a)現実認識
   (b)意図
 
(a)現実認識は、上記の②に属することが多いだろう。(b)意図の認識は②に属する。(a)現実認識と(b)意図が矛盾していることを知るためには、①と②が必要である。①が成立するためには、他者も同じように対象をとらえるということが必要であり、②が成立するためには、他者が私の意図を私と同じように知ることが必要である。そして、①と②の矛盾についての知識が、確実なものになるためには、他者もまたその矛盾をとらえることが必要であるだろう。さもなればそれは、私的な思い込みと区別がつかないからである。
 
簡潔に言うとこうなる。対象の認識、意図の認識は、三角測量の二つの頂点であり、他者の心の認識なしには成立しない。したがって、現実認識と意図の矛盾もまた、他者の心の認識なしには成立しない。問いは、他者を介して成立するのである。
 
(発達心理学において、現時点でどの程度確実に証明できているのかわからないが、おそらく次のようなことが言えるだろう。幼児の場合には、大人と幼児の共同注意の中で、対象についての知識が成立し、大人と幼児の共同行為の中で、自分の欲望や意図についての幼児の知識が成立するのだろうと思われる。幼児にとっての最初の問いの成立は、身近な大人を介して成立するのである。別の書庫「共同注意と・・」を参照)
 
ここから次のことが帰結する。
問いは、三角測量の中で成立し、答えもまた三角測量によって成立する。したがって、「人格は問答ないし問答の連続である」と言えるならば、「人格もまた、三角測量によって成立する」と言えるだろう。記憶の連続性や意図の連続性や現実認識の連続性を保証するのは、他者とのコミュニケーションであった。それゆえにまた、「人格の同一性(つまり問答の同一性ないし問答連続性)を保証するものは、他者とのコミュニケーションである」。
 
 

 
 

投稿者:

irieyukio

問答の哲学研究、ドイツ観念論研究、を専門にしています。 2019年3月に大阪大学を定年退職し、現在は名誉教授です。 香川県丸亀市生まれ、奈良市在住。

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