5 感情発生の因果性と理由 

 

                             先週東京出張でした。
 
5 感情発生の因果性と理由(20130421)

 
Kim先生の質問は、こうでした。
「もし感情が能動的であるならば、それらは合理的(つまり、広い意味で何らかの「論理」に従うもの)なのでしょうか?」
 
私が前2回で示したのは、「感情が合理的(つまり、広い意味で何らかの「論理」に従うもの)である」ということでした。しかし、感情が何らかの論理に従うとしても、それだけから、感情が能動的であることを導出することはできません。言い換えると、感情が何らかの推論によって説明されるとしても、それだけから感情が能動的であることを導出することはできません。
 
感情の発生を説明する推論が、自然的因果法則を用いた推論になるとき、感情は受動的なものであることになるのでしょうか。そして、感情の発生を説明する推論が、理由に言及する推論であるとき、感情は能動的なものであるということになるのでしょうか。
 
確かに、例えば、感覚の発生は、自然的な因果関係によって説明できそうであり、感覚は受動的なものだと考えられそうです。
 
しかし、食欲の場合には同でしょうか。食欲が因果関係で生物学的に説明されるということはありうることだろうと思いますが、しかしその場合でも、食欲という欲望は能動的なものだと考えられるのではないでしょうか。しかし、感覚と欲望は、次の点でことなります。「あなたはなぜ、何かを食べたいのですか」ととうと、「なぜなら、空腹だからです」という答えが帰ってくるだろう。空腹は、生理学的な身体状態であると同時に、ある感覚でもあります。そして、私たちが食欲を感じるのは、空腹を含めて、身体状態についての感覚を持つからでだと思います。もしそうならば、食欲は、感覚を理由とする推論によって説明することが可能です。食欲は、一方では、生物学的な因果法則にもとづいて説明されうるかも知れませんが、しかし他方では同時に、理由にもとづく推論によって説明されるのであって、それゆえに、欲望は能動的なものとして理解されるのではないでしょうか。
 
感情についても、科学者は生理学的な、あるいは心理学的な自然法則を前提とする推論によって感情の成立を説明できるかもしれませんが、しかし、同時に感情については、「あなたは、なぜ悲しいのですか」という理由を問う問いに答えることできます。(なんらかの薬を飲んで、ある気分になっているときにも、「あなたは、なぜうれしそうなのですか」と尋ねたら、「薬を飲んだからです」という原因を答えるだけでなく、「今日はいい天気だからです」などと理由(この場合には、いい天気できもちがよい、というような感覚の存在が理由になる)を挙げてこたえるのではないでしょうか。)
 
以上は単なる推測ですが、心理学で経験的にチェック可能なはずです。もしそれが正しければ、そこから次のように考えることできるでしょう。
<心的なものの発生についての自然的因果法則を用いた推論と、理由に言及する推論は、両立しうる。そして、感情については両方が同時にありうるが、しかし前者の推論ができない場合も含めて、理由に言及する推論はつねに行われる。なぜなら、もしこれができないときには、おそらくその人は自分の感情について理解できず、有意味に語ることができないからである>
 
同一の感情の発生について、二種類の推論による説明が可能であるとすると、そのことは、感情は受動的なものとして理解されることもあるし、能動的なものとして理解されることもある、ということを意味するのでしょうか。
 

 
 

投稿者:

irieyukio

問答の哲学研究、ドイツ観念論研究、を専門にしています。 2019年3月に大阪大学を定年退職し、現在は名誉教授です。 香川県丸亀市生まれ、奈良市在住。

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